Tofua

International Volcano
Research Centre

Apache Junction, Arizona USA

Volcano Tofua in the Tonga Is., Pacific Ocean
Photo courtesy of NASA.

The Latest News On Current Eruptions
For Year 2008 .......

*** STRATO / COMPLEX / COMPOUND VOLCANOES ***

JAPAN
Volcano: ASAMA

36.40N 138.53E 2568 m

Asama
Asama photo courtesy of .

As of the 22nd of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption plume that on 14th August rose to an altitude of 3 km a.s.l. and drifted S.

Asama, Honshu's most active volcano, is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan arcs and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century. The modern cone of Maekake-yama is situated E of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofu-yama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic and rhyolitic lava cone was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 years BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the E flank. Maekake-yama is probably only a few thousand years old, but has had several major Plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 and 1783 AD.

The Current Colour Code for Asama is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Asama in Japan was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 52.69% probability of an eruption event.

PHILIPPINES
Volcano: MAYON

12.26N 123.69E 2462 m

Mayon
Mayon photo courtesy of Larry A. Fernandez.

As of the 14th of August, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismlogy (PHIVOLCS) reported that on 10 August, a mild explosion from Mayon produced an ash plume to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. PHIVOLCS reported that during the previous few weeks seismic activity had increased slightly and incandescence at the crater had intensified. The Alert Level remained at 1. The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

PHIVOLCS is keeping a tight watch over Mayon volcano after it monitored a mild explosion in the mountain at 0912hrs Sunday, a PHIVOLCS bulletin at noontime said. Mt. Mayon emitted smoke that reached a height of around 200 metres above the summit, said the PHIVOLCS bulletin. The smoke from the volcano summit later drifted east northeast. "The volcano is undergoing an episode of increased activity probably related to magma movement and though no major eruption is indicated, steam and ash explosions may occur in the following days," added the bulletin. The PHIVOLCS reiterated that Alert Level 1 remained over Mt. Mayon as of Sunday. It has also reminded the public that the seven-kilometre extended danger zone at the southeastern flank and the six-kilometre permanent danger zone at other areas remain off-limits due to threats from sudden small explosions and rockfalls from the upper slopes.

In view of the above, PHIVOLCS reiterates that Mayon volcano’s status remains at Alert Level 1. The public, however, is reminded that the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) at the southeastern flank of the volcano and the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) at other areas remain off-limits due to the continuing threat from sudden small explosions and rockfalls from the upper slopes. Active river channels and those areas perennially identified as lahar-prone around the volcano should be avoided when there is heavy and prolonged rainfall. PHIVOLCS is keeping a tight watch over Mayon and shall immediately report any significant development to all concerned.

The Mayon Volcano is an active stratovolcano in the Philippines on the island of Luzon, in the province of Albay in the Bicol Region. The near perfectly cone shaped volcano is situated 15 kilometres northwest of Legazpi City. Mayon Volcano is one of the candidates of the New 7 Wonders of Nature. Mayon is classified by volcanologists as a stratovolcano, or composite volcano. Its symmetric cone was formed through alternate pyroclastic and lava flows. Mayon is the most active volcano in the country, having erupted over 47 times in the past 400 years. It is located between the Eurasian and the Philippine Plate, at a convergent plate boundary: where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate, the lighter continental plate overrides the oceanic plate, forcing it down; magma is formed where the rock melts. Like other volcanoes located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean, Mayon is a part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is renowned as the "Perfect Cone" volcano because of its almost perfectly conical shape.

The Current Colour Code for Mayon is currently at the YELLOW Alert Level.

The volcano Mayon in the Philippines was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 81.11% probability of an eruption event.

ALEUTIAN IS.
Volcano: KASATOCHI

52.18N 175.51W 314 m

Kasatochi
Kasatochi photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 23rd of August, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that seismic activity at Kasatochi continues. Earthquakes were detected by the AVO seismic network on Great Sitkin Island 25 miles west of Kasatochi all week. Satellite views the majority of the week were obscured by clouds. On Sunday, August 17th, people on Adak reported smelling sulfur and on Monday, August 18th, clear satellite views showed a steam plume from the volcano's summit.

Located at the northern end of a shallow submarine ridge trending perpendicular to the Aleutian arc, Kasatochi is small 2.7 x 3.3 km wide island volcano with a dramatic 750-m-wide summit crater lake. The summit of Kasatochi reaches only 314 m above sea level, and the lake surface lies less than about 60 m above the sea. A lava dome is located on the NW flank at about 150 m elevation. The asymmetrical island is steeper on the northern side than the southern, and the volcano's crater lies north of the centre of the island. Reports of activity from the heavily eroded Koniuji volcano to the east probably refer to eruptions from Kasatochi. A lava flow may have been emplaced during the first historical eruption in 1760.

The Current Colour Code for Kasatochi is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Kasatochi in the Aleutian Is. was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 46.61% probability of an eruption event.

ALEUTIAN IS.
Volcano: Mt. CLEVELAND

52.83N 169.94W 1730 m

Cleveland
Mt. Cleveland photo courtesy of AVO.

As of the 23rd of August, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that clouds have obscured the volcano in satellite views most of the week. Partly cloudy satellite views on Tuesday, August 19th showed a weak thermal anomaly at Mt. Cleveland volcano and no plume was observed. AVO has received no additional information about activity at Mt. Cleveland this week.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Mt. Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Mt. Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Cleveland is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Mt. Cleveland in the Aleutian Is. was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 74.03% probability of an eruption event.

KURILE IS.
Volcano: CHIKURACHKI

50.33N 155.46E 1816 m

Chikurachkil
Chikurachki photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 22nd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that eruptive activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano all week.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Chikurachki in the Kurile Is. was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 64.23% probability of an eruption event.

NICARAGUA
Volcano: SAN CRISTOBAL

12.70N 087.00W 1745 m

San Cristobal
San Cristobal photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 17th of July, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that a news article reported that San Cristóbal produced a series of small explosions on the 11th of July, sending a plume of gas and ash NW. The article also noted that INETER had detected a series of tremors in recent weeks.

The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.

The Current Colour Code for San Cristobal is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano San Cristobal in Nicaragua was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 55.24% probability of an eruption event.

CHILE
Volcano: CHAITEN

42.83S 072.65W 1122 m

Chaiten
Chaiten photo courtesy of UPI/Carlos Gutierrez.

Latest NOAA satellite image of the Chaiten eruption.

As of the 21st of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that SERNAGEOMIN reported that continuous emissions of gas-and-ash plumes from Chaitén were observed on 13 August, after three days of bad weather prevented visual observations. Plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l., but later that day rose to greater altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The increased activity did not correspond to any significant variation in seismicity. Plumes were emitted from two areas on the E and S flanks and were different colors; the area on the E flank produced steam plumes with minor ash content and the area on the S flank emitted darker ash plumes. The plumes drifted SW and caused ashfall in Chaitén town for several hours. The ash accumulation was 1.5 cm thick. Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, analysis of satellite imagery, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-19 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.4-2.4 km (4,500-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free late-Pleistocene caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. The north side of the rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupying the 3.5-km-wide caldera is unvegetated. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome. Moreno (1985 pers. comm.) noted that the nearby volcano of Yelcho listed by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1973) does not exist.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Chaiten in Chile has not been monitored nor forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008. Since this volcano has come out of near extinction (dormancy for ~10,000 yrs), it will now be tracked and monitored for further events. This eruption will not be included in the statistical analysis for year 2008 except for the eruption count total.

CHILE
Volcano: LLAIMA

38.69S 071.73W 3125 m

Llaima
Llaima photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 21st of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that don analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a diffuse steam plume from Masaya drifted WSW on 12 August and a gas plume was detected on 18 August. Both plumes possibly contained ash during 8-11 August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that fumarolic activity from the snow-free pyroclastic cones in Llaima's main crater was visible during periods of clear weather; resultant plumes drifted E. A 2-km long strip on the NE flank was black in color (snow-free) due to elevated temperatures. On 13 August, gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Later that day, incandescence from the crater accompanied the gas-and-ash emissions.

Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterised by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at the YELLOW Alert Level.

The volcano Llaima in Chile was previously and successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 70.47% probability of an eruption event.

JAPAN
Volcano: SAKURA-JIMA

31.59N 130.66E 1117 m

Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 14th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 August an eruption plume from Sakura-Jima rose to an altitude greater than 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Sakura-Jima in Japan was previously and successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 90.63% probability of an eruption event.

JAPAN
Volcano: SUWANOSE-JIMA

29.64N 129.72E 799 m

Suwanose-Jima
Suwanose-Jima photo courtesy of the JMA.

As of the 14th of August, the Japan Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) has reported that based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 August an eruption plume from Suwanose-Jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.(JMA)

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is currently at the YELLOW Alert Level.

The volcano Suwanose-Jima in Japan was previously and successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 85.35% probability of an eruption event.

JAVA (Indonesia)
Volcano: SEMERU

08.11S 112.92E 3,676 m

Semeru
Semeru photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 14th of August, the CVGHM reported that the Darwin VAAC reported that based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 August ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. and that incandescent material was ejected from the crater. CVGHM indicated that the activity was normal; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.

The Current Colour Code for Semeru is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2 Alert Level.

The volcano Semeru in Indonesia was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 100% probability of an eruption event.

SULAWESI (Indonesia)
Volcano: SOPUTAN

01.11N 124.73E 1784 m

Soputan
Soputan photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 26th of June, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that the eruption of Soputan during 6-7 June caused part of the crater wall to collapse creating an opening to the W, and the diameter of the crater to increase. Ash plumes generated on 6 June drifted NW, W, SW, and as far as 60 km S. Ash deposits were about 4 cm thick in an area 5 km NW. A nearby coconut plantation reported damage to trees. During 7-18 June, seismicity decreased and white plumes at altitudes at or less than 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. were spotted when clouds did not inhibit observations. On 18 June, the Alert Level was decreased to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1 Alert Level.

The volcano Soputan in Sulawesi (Indonesia) was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 73.44% probability of an eruption event.

INDONESIA
Volcano: KRAKATAU

06.10S 105.42E 813 m

Krakatau
Krakatau photo courtesy of Richard Roscoe.

As of the 21st of August, the CVGHM reported that according to a news article, explosions and earthquakes from Anak Krakatau averaged 120 per day approximately during 11-17 August. Monitoring personnel observed active lava flows, ejecting rocks, and emissions of "smoke."

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2 Alert Level.

The volcano Krakatau in Indonesia was previously and successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 72.79% probability of an eruption event.

HALMAHERA (Indoniesia)
Volcano: DUKONO

01.68N 127.88E 1335 m

Dukono
Dukono photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 21st of Auguat, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 19th of August an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1 Alert Level.

The volcano Dukono in Indonesia was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 72.16% probability of an eruption event.

SUMATRA
Volcano: KERINCI

01.70S 101.26E 3800 m

Kerinci
Kerinci photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 15th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that seismic and surface activity from Kerinci increased during 10-11 May. White plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.5 km (14,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 11 May, a gray plume was possibly spotted. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

The Current Colour Code for Kerinci. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2 Alert Level.

The volcano Kerinci in Sumatra was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 84.8% probability of an eruption event.

COLOMBIA
Volcano: GALERAS

01.22N 077.37W 4276 m

Galeras
Galeras photo courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

As of the 21st of August, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that the registry of seismicity related predominantly to dynamics persists of flowed inside the volcanic system, that happens in relatively superficial levels and is originated by magmatic processes as as much hydrothermals. The Sulphur Dioxide emissions to the atmosphere (typical gas of magmatic origin), that comes in the last characterising the process months, continues in a significant way; one stands out on the 14th of August, when measuring a daily equivalent near 5200 tonnes. By action of winds, the preferential dispersion appeared towards the northwestern flank of the volcano. During a fly over realised on the 15th of August with support of the Colombian Air Force, was observed that significant processes of gas discharge stay as much from the bottom of the main crater like from sectors of the periphery, with a column tended towards the west of the volcano by action of winds. One also stands out that the thermal images of the bottom of the main crater show significant anomalies, with maximum values between 260 and 470°C. It is reiterated that the general evaluation of the phenomenon allows to demonstrate the existence of a magmatic body in relatively superficial levels, that its process of degasification maintains; probably, with a system of open conduits that make possible the exit of gases.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at LEVEL III .

The volcano Galeras in Colombia was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 90.74% probability of an eruption event.

COLOMBIA
Volcano: NEVADO del HUILA

02.93N 076.03W 5365m

Huila
Nevado del Huila photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 21st of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, INGEOMINAS reported that in the present week a total of 563 seismic events were registered. Of them, 433 are related to fracturing of rock, 118 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits, 9 events of the Hybrid type and 3 pulses of tremor of low magnitude. Of the registered seismic activity during the week, the registry of a fracture event stands out on the 15th of August at 0727 hours, located at 1.2 km to the E of the Central Tip, to a depth of 6 km and magnitude of 2.8; besides a slight increase of the associated seismic activity with fracturing of rock, located around the South Tip, with hypocentral depths between 5 and 10 km, and magnitudes inferiors to 1. Of the analysis of the information that was obtained during the week, it is emphasised that the volcano has presented/displayed a slight increase in the registry of associated seismic events with fracturing of rock, without it implies a change in the level of effective activity.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Nevade del Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Nevado del Huila is currently at ORANGE .

The volcano Nevado del Huila in Colombia was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 100% probability of an eruption event.

GUATEMALA
Volcano: PACAYA

14.38N 090.60W 2570m

Pacaya
Pacaya photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 22nd of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 1.2 mm. Wind speed: 5.0 km/hr. Direction: West. Activity: The seismic station of PCG registers associate superficial events to gas expulsions in the crater, at night is observed the incandescent reflection. In the Mackenney crater, white fumaroles that move to the west of the volcano. The flow stays in the average part of the volcanic complex in the southwestern flank, being divided sometimes in 2 and 3 branches, that reach 75, 150 and 300 metres.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE .

The volcano Pacaya in Guatemala was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 92.88% probability of an eruption event.

GUATEMALA
Volcano: FUEGO

14.47N 090.88W 3760m

Fuego
Fuego photo courtesy of INSIVUMEH.

As of the 22nd of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: mm. Wind speed: 1.7 km/hr. Direction: West & Northwest. Activity: As one inquired yesterday in the evening, the strong pluvial precipitation of the zone of the Fuego volcano originated strong and corented lahars by the different rivers in the south part from the volcano. One of the parts more affected by lahars is the one of the CENZIA river, MELINA and PLATANERES, which damaged the access road leaving isolated to settlers of the ROCHELA, SEILAN, SAN ANDRES OSUNA with the SIQUINALA population. Since the corented ones caused them to eroded leaving abundant blocks in the passage of the rivers before mentioned. The volcanic activity stays equal to presented/displayed the previous days. Rains of the season would continue generating weak, moderate and strong lahars by ravines.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE .

The volcano Fuego in Guatemala was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 74.18% probability of an eruption event.

GUATEMALA
Volcano: SANTA MARIA

14.72N 091.57W 2500m

Santa Maria
Santa Maria photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 22nd of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 72.6 mm. Wind speed: 7.2 km/hr. Direction: Southwest. Activity: On the crater of the COne Caliente, abundant degassing, few moderate & weak explosions between and some, expelling sporadically gray ash have been observed to 300 and 600 metres on the crater, moving the plume to the south and southwest on the properties El Faro, Patzulin, La Florida, Monte Claro and the zone of Palajunoj.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE .

The volcano Santa Maria in Guatemala was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 89.38% probability of an eruption event.

WEST INDIES
Volcano: SOUFRIERE HILLS

16.72N 062.18W 915m

Soufriere Hills
Soufriere Hills photo courtesy of Greg Scott, Caribbean Helicopters.
Clear view of the lava dome at Soufrière Hills Volcano from the south
with the crater rim in the foreground. 7 January 2008.

Latest NOAA satellite image of the Soufriere Hills eruption.

As of the 23rd of August, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that although the lava dome at the Soufriere Hills volcano has been obscured by cloud, all the evidence suggests that slow lava extrusion continues on the western side of the dome. Rockfall and long-period seismic activity has increased. MVO recorded 34 rockfalls, 24 long period, 1 hybrid and 1 volcano-tectonic events this week. Most of the rockfalls were on the western side of the dome in the new channel that has developed below the Gages Wall. Some of the rockfalls generated small ash clouds, the most noticeable being on the 16th and 17th of August. There was a small pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley at about 1330 hpurs on Tuesday, the 19th of August. This was probably caused by continuing erosion on the eastern side of the dome and not connected with the resumption of lava extrusion. The average sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux for the week was 1122 tonnes per day (t/d) with a minimum of 274 t/d on August 20th and a maximum of 2033 t/d on August 17th. These values are similar to the elevated values recorded since the explosion on the 28th of July. Lava extrusion is expected to continue, and an increase in the extrusion rate cannot be ruled out. As more material is extruded, the lava should form a new lobe on the western flank of the dome. The steepness of the dome in this area makes it very likely that, as the dome grows, rockfall activity will increase and that this could generate pyroclastic flows on the western flank of the volcano. The Hazard Level is 3.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3 .

The volcano Soufriere Hills on Montserrat in the Caribbean was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 100% probability of an eruption event.

PERU
Volcano: UBINAS

16.36S 070.90W 5672m

ubinas
Ubinas photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 21st of August, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that based on SIGMET reports and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 18 August ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at YELLOW .

The volcano Ubinas in Chile was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 67.00% probability of an eruption event.

KAMCHATKA (Russia)
Volcano: KARYMSKY

54.05N 159.54E 1586m

Karymsky
Karymsky photo courtesy of NASA.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Karymsky

As of the 22nd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6.0 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on August 14th, 15th, 17th, 19th; slightly above background levels on August 20th; at background levels on August 16th, 18th. According to seismic data, possible ash-gas explosions up to 3 km (9,800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on August 14th-15th, 17th-20th. Weak intermittent volcanic tremor was registered on August 14th, 20th.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE .

The volcano Karymsky in Kamchatka was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 52.54% probability.

KAMCHATKA (Russia)
Volcano: BEZYMIANNY

55.98N 160.59E 2882m

Bezymianny
Bezymianny photo courtesy of NASA.

Latest MODIS satellite image of the Bezymianny eruption.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Bezymianny

As of the 22nd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity of the volcano, the size and temperature of the thermal anomaly decreased after explosive eruption on August 19th. The activity of the volcano still could affect low-flying aircraft. Moderate eruption of the volcano occurred 1030-1115 hours UTC on August 19th. Seismic activity was above background levels during this day. Thermal anomaly became much larger immediately before the eruption. According to satellite data, ash plume rose up to 9 km. Ash cloud 125x35 km was moving 1300 km (806 mi) to the west from the volcano. Staff of seismic station in Kozyrevsk (50 km to the west from the volcano) reported ashfall and smell of volcanic gas. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels on August 14th, 16th-18th; at background levels on August 15th, 20th-21st. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome on August 14th, 15th, 18th-21st. According to visual data, clouds obscured the volcano all week.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW .

The volcano Bezymianny in Kamchatka was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 90.64% probability.

KAMCHATKA (Russia)
Volcano: SHEVELUCH

56.65N 161.36E 3263m

Sheveluch
Sheveluch image courtesy of NASA.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Sheveluch

As of the 22nd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was slightly above background levels all week: volcanic earthquakes and a weak volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all week, possible ash-gas explosion up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on August 14. According to visual data, clouds obscured the volcano all days of the week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome on August 15th, 18th, 21st.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE.

The volcano Sheveluch in Kamchatka was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100.00% probability.

MEXICO
Volcano: COLIMA

19.51N 103.62W 3850m

Colima
Colima image as seen by Landsat satellite.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Colima.

As of the 23rd of August, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that during the last 24 hours, there were no new emanations during last the twenty-four hours, nor reports of damages or affectation in the adjacent populations, according to information from the Government into the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence Colima. Most of the time, in the zone where it is the volcano persists the cloudiness, some water precipitations and electrical activity, conditions associated to the passage of Tropical Wave no. 24; it is for that reason that reminds the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). Also, it follows the restriction effective for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW.

The volcano Colima in Mexico was previously and successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100.00% probability.

MEXICO
Volcano: POPOCATEPETL

19.02N 098.62W 5426m

Popo
Popocatepetl image courtesy of CENAPRED.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Popocatepetl.

Latest NOAA satellite image of the Popocatepetl eruption.

As of the 23rd of August, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 4 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW.

The volcano Popocatepetl in Mexico was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100.00% probability.

ECUADOR
Volcano: TUNGURAHUA

01.47S 078.44W 5023m

Tungurahua
Tungurahua image courtesy of Dolores Ochoa, AP .

Latest MODIS satellite image of Tungurahua eruption.

View latest NOAA satellite image of Tungurahua (Updated every 30 minutes)

As of the 23rd of August, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the seismic activity of Tungurahua volcano maintains a low level.

The IG reports that seismicity: In the last 24 hours, a total of 29 events of long period (LPs) has been entered. Observations, Emissions and Ash: Most of the time the volcano remains dimmed and it becomes impossible to have direct visualisations. With light drizzles a small mud flow was generated yesterday in the gorge of Bascún.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE .

The Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador was correctly forecasted by ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with >95.0% probability.

********** SHIELD VOLCANOES **********

ALEUTIAN IS.
Volcano: OKMOK

53.40N 166.17W 1073 m

Okmok
Okmok photo courtesy of AVO.

Latest NOAA-18 satellite image of the Okmok eruption.

As of the 23rd of August, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) informs that volcanic unrest continues at Okmok volcano. Satellite data from Monday, August 18th, indicated intermittent small ash emissions which drifted generally to the south and reached no higher than 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Beginning Tuesday, August 19th, the level of seismic activity approached pre-eruption levels and satellite data showed that ash was no longer being emitted. Despite mostly cloudy conditions on Thursday, August 21st, satellite observations show a possible thermal anomaly at the volcano. Seismic activity stayed near pre-eruption levels the remainder of the week.

The broad, basaltic Okmok shield volcano, which forms the NE end of Umnak Island, has a dramatically different profile than most other Aleutian volcanoes. The summit of the low, 35-km-wide volcano is cut by two overlapping 10-km-wide calderas formed during eruptions about 12,000 and 2050 years ago that produced dacitic pyroclastic flows that reached the coast. More than 60 tephra layers from Okmok have been found overlying the 12,000-year-old caldera-forming tephra layer. Numerous satellitic cones and lava domes dot the flanks of the volcano down to the coast, including 1253-m Mount Tulik on the SE flank, which is almost 200 m higher than the caldera rim. Some of the post-caldera cones show evidence of wave-cut lake terraces; the more recent cones, some of which have been active historically, were formed after the caldera lake, once 150 m deep, disappeared. Hot springs and fumaroles are found within the caldera. Historical eruptions have occurred since 1805 from cinder cones within the caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Okmok is currently at the ORANGE Alert Level.

The volcano Okmok in the Aleutian Is. was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with a 55.24% probability of an eruption event.

SICILY
Volcano: Mt. ETNA

37.73N 015.00E 3350m

Etna Etna

Mt. Etna photos courtesy of Pietro Vinciguerra.

As of the 24th of July it has been reported by INGV-CT that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 15 July revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and to a lesser degree from the BN-1 crater of the Bocca Nuova. Explosive activity was restricted to Vent 2 of the active NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters and characterised by weak Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions. During 15 and 17 July lava flows were active in the Valle del Bove. On 17 July, no explosive activity was seen along the fissure.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Mt. Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE alert level.

The volcano Mt. Etna in Sicily was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100.00% probability.

NEW BRITAIN (PNG)
Volcano: RABAUL

04.27S 152.20E 688m

Rabaul

Rabaul photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

Latest MODIS satellite image of the Rabaul eruption.

As of the 21st of August, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 August, low-level plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW and NW. During 16-18 August, RVO reported ashfall in areas downwind. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2 alert level.

The volcano Rabaul in New Britain (PNG) was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100% probability.

HAWAII
Volcano: KILAUEA

19.42N 155.29W 1222m

Kilauea Kilauea

1st Row Left: The centre of the photograph shows the results of a recent lobe of lava entering the forested region north of the access road, on the eastern margin of the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) flow field. The lobe was fed from a breakout which began on August 10th, and had stalled by August 12th. The Waikupanaha ocean entry is visible at the top of the photograph.
1st Row Right: In the centre of the photograph, a narrow stream of lava emerges from the littoral cone and peacefully enters the ocean, creating a weak, diffuse steam plume at the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Near the bottom of the photograph there is an inactive spatter cone with a deep hole. The spatter cone was created in the last few days from violent bubble-bursting, which threw globs of spatter several tens of yards. The bubble-bursting was audible more than a half-mile away.

Kilauea Kilauea

2nd Row Left: The sediment plume (left) emanating from the active ocean entry paints a sharp contrast with the untouched seawater (right).
2nd Row Right: An obscured view into the TEB vent revealed two streams of lava entering the tube system. The eastern stream is visible in this photograph.

KIlauea photos courtesy of HVO.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Pu`u `O`o.

As of the 23rd of August, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Kilauea summit continued to produce small amounts of ash and elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas from the Halema`uma`u vent; a DI tilt event is nearing completion. At the east rift eruption site, Pu`u `O`o cone continued to produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide gas; the TEB eruption has paused with no ocean entry plume visible this morning.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: A small hybrid/explosion earthquake occurred at 1438hrs yesterday which did turn the Halema`uma`u plume brown for a few minutes. Overnight, incandescence continued to be weak and was barely recorded on the webcam. This morning, a white plume is rising from the Halema`uma`u vent and being blown southwestward over the Ka`u Desert. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained elevated and variable; the most recent average measurement was 800 tonnes/day on August 20th compared to a pre-2008 background rate between 150-200 tonnes/day. GOES-WEST imagery shows the plume going directly southwest along the coast at 0700hrs. Ash production continued; collections were significantly smaller this morning. Frequent rock impact sounds could be heard during the ash collection routine. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the inflation portion of a DI-tilt-event at 1850hrs. The network of GPS receivers that span the summit recorded contraction across the caldera. Seismic tremor remained at moderate levels. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes beneath Halema`uma`u Crater remained above background values of 40/d. Thirteen earthquakes were located beneath Kilauea: seven were beneath the southern summit caldera, three beneath an area immediately west of the southwest rift zone, two on Koa`e faults, and one on south flank faults.

Last 24 hours in the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continued to degas through Pu`u `O`o Crater resulting in an emission of 3,200 tonnes/day of sulfur dioxide on August 20th, down from a high of 7,100 tonnes/day on July 18th and near background values of about 2,000 tonnes/day. No incandescence was observed within the crater overnight. The tiltmeter on the north side of Pu`u `O`o cone recorded the inflation portion of DI tilt event at 1917hrs last night. GPS receivers recorded weak contraction across the crater. Seismic tremor levels were at background levels near Pu`u `O`o and decreased to background levels at the TEB vent. Lava from the TEB vent and the rootless shield field flows through tubes to the ocean. Yesterday morning, HVO geologists found a single active ocean entry issuing a reduced-sized plume and no surface flow activity; the reduced vigor at the entry may have been the result of the ongoing DI tilt event. Overnight, no incandescence was visible from the rift zone to the top of the pali above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. This morning, CD officials reported that there is no plume visible from the trailhead consistent with a reduction of eruptive activity during the initial stage of a DI tilt event. Activity should resume now that the summit and Pu`u `O`o have recorded the final DI tilt stage.

Definitions of terms used in the update:
GOES-WEST satellite: a NOAA satellite used most often for weather tracking. The loop http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/kilauea/sloop-vis.html is posted by the Washington DC Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre for the purpose of tracking emissions from Hawai`i volcanoes. The imagery automatically switches from infrared at night to visual during the day. Recently, it has been useful for tracking volcanic gas emissions from Halema`uma`u, Pu`u `O`o, and the Waikupanaha ocean entry during the day and hot lava flows at night.
VLP seismic tremor: seismic tremor is continuous ground vibrations simultaneously at many different frequencies. VLP is a very long period or very low frequency component which, at the Halema`uma`u vent, has a period of 20-30 seconds or a frequency of 0.03-0.05 cycles per second (Hertz or Hz).
RB2S2BL earthquakes: earthquakes that were recorded but too small to be located. These quakes have magnitudes less than 1.7 and may only be recorded on one or two seismometers. Recording at a minimum of 4 seismometer sites is required to locate an earthquake.
wink: an abrupt shutting off of incandescence at a vent lasting for several minutes. At the Halema`uma`u vent, winks usually start with or immediately follow a small, local earthquake. The diminishment of incandescence is hypothesized as a covering of incandescent surfaces by rockfall debris that takes a few minutes to heat back up to incandescent temperatures.
tonne: metric unit equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.6 lbs, or 1.1 English tons.
microradian: a measure of angle equivalent to 0.000057 degrees.
ppm: parts-per-million; 10,000 ppm = 1 %.
littoral cone: usually small cones built near active ocean entries; the cones are constructed of tephra from steam explosions that are sometimes produced when 1,150 degree C lava enters the 25 degree C ocean.
incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The colour of the light is related to the temperature of the surface. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F).
tephra: all material deposited by fallout from an eruption-related plume, regardless of size.
ash: tephra less than 2 mm (5/64 inches) in size.
TEB: Thanksgiving Eve Breakout, the designation used for lava flows that started with a breakout on November 21, 2007.
DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a volcanic event of uncertain significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours to 2-3 days followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o, delayed by 1-2 hours. DI events often correlate with lava pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/July 21/TEB vents.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE alert level.

The volcano Kilauea in Hawaii was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100% probability.

********** CONTINUOUSLY ERUPTING VOLCANOES **********

Some volcanoes that INTLVRC monitors are, for the most part, in a state of continuous eruption. INTLVRC presents the following information on those volcanoes with links, as indicated, to various aspects of the volcano. As specific events occur, INTLVRC will update this portion of the "Current Eruptions" section.

COSTA RICA
Volcano: ARENAL

10.46N 084.70W 1670m

Arenal
Arenal photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 1st of August, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. It continues to erupted, on and off, from time-to-time.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE.

The volcano Arenal in Costa Rica was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with >100% probability.

SO. PACIFIC (Vanuatu)
Volcano: YASUR

19.55S 169.44E 361m

Yasur
Yasur photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 1st of August, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3.

The volcano Yasur in the South Pacific (Vanuatu) was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with >100% probability.

ITALY
Volcano: STROMBOLI

38.79N 015.21E 924m

Stromboli
Stromboli photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

Latest NOAA satellite image of Stromboli.

Continuous"Live-Cam" of Stromboli.

As of the 1st of August, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that eruptions continue at Stromboli. In June 2008, Marco Fulle led a Volcano Discovery group on Pizzo with local Magmatrek guide Mario Pruiti. Mild Scirocco wind made for perfect visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which four vents were erupting about twenty times per hour.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE.

The volcano Stromboli in Italy was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100% probability.

ANTARCTICA
Volcano: Mt. EREBUS

77.53S 167.17E 3794m

Mt. Erebus
Mt. Erebus photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

"Live-Cam" link to Mt. Erebus.

Link to Table of Seismic activity monitors for Mt. Erebus.

The most recent Erebus Activity Plot.
Erebus

As of the 1st of August, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 metres is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the centre of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts.

CAVEAT: Despite the database of information on the geology of Mt. Erebus, there is still much to be learned about the volcano. The relative lack of knowledge becomes apparent when Mt. Erebus is stacked up against other active volcanoes of the world. There are many reasons for this comparative lack of knowledge, including the scarcity of rock exposures due to snow and ice cover, the remoteness of the volcano, the extreme environment, the brief field season (<6 weeks per year) and its non-threatening nature (i.e. no large populations are in jeopardy because of Mt. Erebus, unlike Vesuvius in Italy or Popocatepetl in Mexico).

Despite the above factors limiting the Mt. Erebus knowledge base, clearly much has been learned about the volcano over the past 25+ years. Nearly all exposed lava flow sets on Mt. Erebus have been physically sampled. Nearly all of these have been examined petrographically and petrologically. The summit lava flows on Mt. Erebus have been extensively mapped and dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. The flank flows have been mapped in less detail, but many have also been dated. Tephra from Mt. Erebus has been found in glaciers on the volcano, mapped, geochemically examined and dated. The morphological characteristics of the edifice have been combined with the geochronological data to provide an evolutionary history of Mt. Erebus. And the physical and eruptive characteristics of the summit lava lake has been observed nearly every year for the past 25 years.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE.

The Mt. Erebus volcano in Antarctica was successfully forecasted by INTLVRC's programme ERUPTION Pro 10.7 to erupt in 2008 with 100% probability.

********** SUBMARINE VOLCANOES **********

Albeit that INTLVRC does not normally monitor and/or forecast submarine volcanoes, except volcano Kick-'em-Jenny in the West Indies & Home Reef volcano in the Tonga Is.. Occasionally information is released concerning submarine volcanoes and they are presented here for informational purposes only.

There are no submarine volcanoes to be reported at this time.